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Prophet Muhammad: The Last Messenger in the Bible

May peace and blessings be upon him
The Arabic word Islam means "the submission or surrender of one’s will to the Only True God, Allah." One who submits to the Will of God is termed, in Arabic, a Muslim. Unlike Christianity, Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism, and Judaism, Islam was not named after a person, a people, or a geographic location. Christianity is named after Jesus Christ, Buddhism after Gotama Buddha, Confucianism after Confucious, Hinduism after the Hindus, and Judaism after the land of Judea. The name Islam was chosen by Allah and is clearly mentioned in the Qur’an.

This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. (5:3)

If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to God), never will it be accepted of him. (3:85)

Though the Qur’an was revealed over fourteen hundred years ago, Islam is not a new religion. Rather, it is a re-expression of the true religion of God in its final form, as it was originally revealed to Adam and all subsequent Prophets (peace be upon all of them). It follows that if all of the true Prophets of God from Adam to Muhammad preached the "true religion of God", then there should be some sort of unity in their teachings. Thus we find the first commandment revealed to Prophet Moses (peace be upon him), as stated in Deuteronomy 5:7 of the Old Testament: "You shall have no other gods beside Me (Allah)." Then in the Qur’an, the Last Testament:

For We assuredly sent amongst every people a prophet, with the command: Worship Me (Allah) and avoid false gods. (16:36)

There are countless examples in the Qur’an and the Bible that instruct the readers to worship Allah alone. However, according to Islam and even a large number of Christian scholars, the true text of the Bible, and thus the revelations given to the prophets in it, have been corrupted through the years. Only the text of the Qur’an remains in its original, unadulterated form. This is not to say that these other texts are not valuable. It is believed that there is some truth still remaining in their historical and prophetic accounts. To rely on them alone, however, is dangerous.

If the Qur’an is the final revelation to mankind, and other religious texts contain prophecies, then it is likely that these other texts contain prophecies of this final revelation to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Just as the Old Testament foretells the coming of a Messiah, Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him), both the Old and New Testaments foretell the coming of the last Prophet of God, Muhammad, as do texts from Parsi and Hindu scriptures. For examples from these other scriptures see Muhammad in other Scriptures

In any discussion of prophethood in the Bible, it is of extreme importance to begin with lineage. Most prophets of the Bible are descendants of Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him). The prophets of Jewish and Christian tradition are descendants of Abraham through his second son, Isaac. Muhammad is also a descendant of Abraham, however, through Ishmael, Abraham’s first son (peace be upon all of them). The Biblical account of the covenant established with the descendants of Abraham describes both Isaac and Ishmael as being "made into great nations," a reference to the prophets to be raised up from among their descendants. In Jewish and Christian traditions, however, the role of Ishmael and his line of descent is often minimized or disregarded.

And as for Ishmael, I have heard you: I will surely bless him; I will make him fruitful and will greatly increase his numbers. He will be the father of twelve rulers, and I will make him into a great nation. (Genesis 17:20)

Many Jews and Christians believe that this “great nation” was made up of the twelve tribes of Arabia. Yet, concerning Isaac, these same Jews and Christians say that "nation" refers to prophethood. "He will be the father of twelve rulers, AND I will make him into a great nation." It is clear that Ishmael’s line of descent will give rise to a great prophet......but how great? Previously, the birth order of Ishmael and Isaac (peace be upon both of them) was emphasized to answer this very question. Deuteronomy 21:15-17 tells us the Divinely inspired Jewish laws of inheritance:

If a man has two wives, and he loves one but not the other, and both bear him sons but the firstborn is the son of the wife he does not love, when he wills his property to his sons, he must not give the rights of the firstborn to the son of the wife he loves in preference to his actual firstborn, the son of the wife he does not love. He must acknowledge the son of the unloved wife as the firstborn by giving him a double share of all he has. That son is the first sign of his father’s strength. The right of the firstborn belongs to him.

Therefore, not only is the line of Ishmael to give rise to a great nation, but the glory of this nation is to be twice that of his younger brother, Isaac. Though this line of reasoning does not even imply that Muhammad is a prophet, it does validate his line of descent as a recipient of the covenant. The next task is to cite and decipher passages from the Old and New Testaments proving that another prophet is even awaited. Once proven, it must then be proven that this awaited prophet is none other than Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Keep in mind that Christianity does not accept any prophets between the first and second coming of Jesus (peace be upon him). Yet, in the first chapter of the Book of John we read:

Now this was John’s testimony when the Jews of Jerusalem sent priests and Levites to ask him who he was. He did not fail to confess, but confessed freely, "I am not the Christ." They asked him, "Then who are you? Are you Elijah?" He said, "I am not." "Are you the Prophet?" He answered, "No." (John 1:19-25)

At this point it sounds as though the priests and Levites, the most learned men of Jerusalem, are waiting for the fulfillment of three prophesies. Later John the Baptist (peace be upon him) is questioned again:

Now some Pharisees who had been sent questioned him, "Why then do you baptize if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?" (John 1:24-25)

The Pharisees, men well versed in Scripture, also await three. Up to the end of the Holy Bible only two of these three have come, namely Prophet Jesus and Prophet Elijah (peace be upon both of them). The next logical question is, "Who is the Prophet?" Moses (peace be upon him) gives us some insight in chapter 18 of the Book of Deuteronomy:

The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own brothers. You must listen to him. (Deuteronomy 18:15)

Though obvious, it is important to note that Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) is speaking to the Jews. He tells us that Allah will raise up a prophet from among their brothers and that they must listen to him.

The Lord said to me (Moses): "What they say is good. I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers; I will put My words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him. If anyone does not listen to My words that the prophet speaks in My name, I Myself will call him to account..." (Deuteronomy 18:17-19)

The best way to analyze this passage is to pick it apart phrase by phrase. First of all, it is clear that this prophet will come "from among their brothers." THEY are Israelites. The Israelites are the descendants of Isaac. Their brothers then, are the Arabs, the descendants of Ishmael. Thus, it is clear that this prophet will come from among the Arabs, as did Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon all of them).

Secondly, this prophet will be like Moses. Since this prophecy is often falsely attributed to Jesus, it is best to ask, "Who is more like Moses, Jesus or Muhammad?" (peace be upon all of them) Both Moses and Muhammad were brought into this world through natural means, whereas Jesus was not. Both Moses and Muhammad married and had children, while Jesus did not. Moses and Muhammad died normal deaths, and Jesus did not. Moses and Muhammad were statesmen. Jesus was not. Throughout his adult life, Jesus was never forced to emigrate, while Moses fled to Median and Muhammad fled to Medina.

Moses and Muhammad were involved in pursuits with their enemies and experienced moral and physical victories. Jesus had no such encounter and his victories were of a moral nature. The revelations given to Moses (The Torah) and Muhammad (The Qur’an) were written down during their lifetimes. However, the New Testament, which documented the traditions and sayings of Jesus, was written down years after his death. Both Moses and Muhammad brought forth legal and spiritual teachings, whereas the teachings of Jesus were mainly spiritual. Finally, both Moses and Muhammad were first rejected and then accepted by their people. Jesus was never truly accepted by the Israelites. Thus, it is clear that Muhammad was more like Moses than Jesus was. Please note that this comparison of these three mighty prophets of God in no way implies that they are or were in any sort of competition. All of the prophets (peace be upon them all) constitute one brotherhood, as do all believers.

Allah says to Moses (peace be upon him), concerning this prophet yet to come, "I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him." Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) did just that. He spoke, word for word, that which was spoken to him through the Angel Gabriel. The word Qur’an literally means "The Recitation." Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) recited everything that Allah commanded him to say. This is why it is not uncommon to find verses in the Qur’an that begin with "Say O Muhammad...", "Recite...", or "Say.."

"If anyone does not listen to My words that the prophet speaks in My name..." In the Qur’an, 113 of the 114 chapters begin with the phrase, Bismillah ir-Rahman ir-Raheem. Literally, "In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful." Muhammad, then, fulfills every word of this prophecy.

Prophecies of the coming of Prophet Muhammad abound throughout the Biblical text. All of Isaiah chapter 42 stands out as an obvious reference to Muhammad (peace be upon him) as a messenger of Allah. This chapter describes him as a "light to the Gentiles." While Jesus repeatedly says, "I was not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (please see Matthew 15:24, 5:17-18, and 10:5-6), it is only Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon both of them) that was sent as a messenger for all of mankind (Jews and Gentiles). Isaiah 42 makes a reference to this "servant of the Lord" as coming from the land of Kedar. It is important to note that Kedar was the second son of Ishmael, a forefather of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). One of the most striking prophecies of Muhammad occurs in Isaiah 21:

An oracle concerning Arabia: You caravans of Dedanites, who camp in the thickets of Arabia, bring water to the thirsty; you who live in Tema, bring food for the fugitives. They flee from the sword, from the drawn sword, from the bent bow and from the heat of battle.

This is what the Lord says to me: "Within one year, as a servant bound by contract would count it, all the pomp of Kedar will come to an end. The survivors of the bowmen, the warriors of Kedar will be few." The Lord, the God of Israel, has spoken. (Isaiah 21:13-17)

This prophecy takes place in Arabia, the land of Muhammad (peace be upon him). The "fugitives" in this case are the Prophet and his faithful followers (may God reward them all). They fled from Mecca, leaving when Muhammad’s house was surrounded by the Quraish, drawn swords in hand. He fled to Medina, peacefully acquired converts numbering upwards of ten thousand. Muhammad returned to fight the great Battle of Badr, in which the idolatrous Quraish, "the pomp of Kedar", suffered a crushing defeat. To this day, no Christian or Jewish Biblical scholar can generate an historic event that fits this prophecy. Yet another prophecy of Muhammad, similar to this one, occurs in Deuteronomy 33:1-2:

And this is the blessing, where with Moses the man of God blessed the children of Israel before his death. And he said, the Lord came from Sinai, and rose up from Se’ir unto them; he shined forth from mount Paran, and he came with ten thousand saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them.

The Lord coming from Sinai alludes to Moses and "[rising] up from Se’ir" refers to Jesus (peace be upon both of them), as the place of his birth was called Se’ir. The prophet who "shined forth from mount Paran" can be none other than Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Paran is the ancient name of the region of Arabia where the children of Ishmael settled. In Arabic, Paran is "Farran", which actually refers to Mecca and literally means "two refugees." It appears as though this took its name from Hagar and Ishmael (peace be upon them both) who went to this region as refugees when Ishmael was still young. And of course, coming with ten thousand saints, or holy men, descending upon Mecca, bearing a fiery law (the Holy Qur’an) is an unmistakable reference to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Another reference to the Prophet is given by Jesus, where Muhammad is referred to as the "Counselor" and the "Spirit of Truth".

But I tell you the truth. It is for your good that I am going away. Unless I go away, the Counselor will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. (John 16:7)

I have much more to say to you, more than you can now bear. But when he, the Spirit of Truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth. He will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. He will bring glory to me by taking from what is mine and making it known to you. (John 16:12-14)

Since Jesus (peace be upon him) indicates that the Counselor will not come unless Jesus himself, leaves, it is virtually impossible for the Counselor to be the Holy Ghost, as some Christian scholars contend. The Holy Ghost occurs in Scripture before, during, and after Jesus’ life, so it cannot be that Jesus must leave for the Holy Ghost to arrive. It is already there. Similar to the "prophet like Moses" in Deuteronomy 18, this Counselor "will speak only what he hears." Through the Qur’an, the final revelation of Allah, and through the sunnah, Muhammad is the one to guide us "into all truth." And both the Qur’an and hadith tell us "what is yet to come." As for glorifying Jesus, Allah tells us in 3:56 that the Qur’an clears Jesus of the lies and speculation surrounding his life and his death. There are a number of remaining references to Prophet Muhammad in the Bible, one where he is even mentioned by name in the original Hebrew (Song of Songs 5:9-16)! "Cheeko mame tah kim, vechulo Mohamadim." This means "His language is most sweet, and he is Muhammad." In the English translations of the Bible, Muhammad's name is translated as "altogether lovely".

This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. (5:3)

In closing I would like to make a du’a for all who read this.....

I pray that Allah Subhannahu Wa T’ala opens your hearts, keeps them open, and guides us all to the straight path. Ameen. I also pray that Allah bestows His peace and blessings upon all of the prophets mentioned, and not mentioned, in this paper. Ameen.

Any mistakes in the logic or the facts comes from me. Any truth is from Allah. All praise is due to Him. It is Him whom we worship and it is His help which we seek.

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